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Geologic Unit: Dunkirk
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Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk shale
  • Modifications:
    • Original reference
  • Dominant lithology:
    • Shale
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Clarke, J.M., 1903, Classification of New York series of geologic formations: New York State Museum Handbook, no. 19, 28 p.


Summary:

Pg. 24 and chart. In Lake Erie section the succession [of Naples beds] is varied by introduction of a third band of black shale lying above horizon of Westhill flags. This is Dunkirk shale. Overlain by Portland shale and underlain by Angola shale, both of which contain an abundance of Naples fossils. [Age is Late Devonian.]

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk black shale
  • Modifications:
    • Areal extent
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Luther, D.D., 1903, Stratigraphy of Portage formation between the Genesee Valley and Lake Erie, IN Merrill, F.J.H. and Clarke, J.M., The report of the [New York] State Paleontologist for the year 1902: New York State Museum Bulletin, no. 69, p. 1000-1029.


Summary:

Pg. 1019-1029. Dunkirk black shale, 53 to 55 feet thick, underlies Portland gray shales and overlies Silver Creek shales. Included in Portage group of Lake Erie region. [Age is Late Devonian.]

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk shale
  • Modifications:
    • Revised
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Hartnagel, C.A., 1912, Classification of the geologic formations of the State of New York: New York State Museum Handbook, no. 19, 96 p.


Summary:

Pg. 78 and chart. The Dunkirk shale is a black shale occurring next above horizon of Grimes sandstone, apparently within basal Gardeau. [In chart, however, he placed it beneath Gardeau flags.] The formation is regarded as local, not having been observed outside of Chautauqua County, [western New York]. The term "Portland" has been used locally to designate certain shales and flags lying above Dunkirk shale. As this term is preoccupied, and it is now evident that these beds are embraced in upper Gardeau, the name Gardeau will be used to include these beds. [In chart the underlying formation is called Hanover.] Included in Portage. [Age is Late Devonian.]
Named from Dunkirk, Chautauqua Co., western NY.

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk shale
  • Modifications:
    • Revised
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Houghton, Frederick, 1914, The geology of Erie County, [New York]: Buffalo Society of Natural Science Bulletin, v. 11, no. 1, p. 3-.


Summary:

Pg. 4, 7-65. Dunkirk shale excluded from Gardeau shale of Erie County, [western New York], because it is distinct enough to warrant our excluding it. Overlain by Gardeau shale, and underlain by Hanover shale. Included in Portage. [Age is Late Devonian.]

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk black shale
  • Modifications:
    • Revised
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Chadwick, G.H., 1919, Remarkable persistence of thin horizons: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 30, p. 157.


Summary:

Pg. 157. Dunkirk black shale included in Chemung. Overlain by Gowanda ("Portland") beds and disconformably underlain by Hanover shales. [Age is Late Devonian.]

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk shale
  • Modifications:
    • Areal extent
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Chadwick, G.H., 1923, Chemung stratigraphy in western New York: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 34, no. 1, p. 68-69.


Summary:

Pg. 69. Dunkirk shale of Chautauqua County [western New York] is overlain by Gowanda shale and underlain by Hanover shale; in Cattaraugus County [western New York] it is overlain by Gowanda beds and underlain by Wiscoy shale (In part = Hanover shale). Assigned to Chemung. Equivalent to upper part of Cayuta shale member of Chemung. [Age is Late Devonian.]

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk black shale
  • Modifications:
    • Areal extent
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Chadwick, G.H., 1924, The stratigraphy of the Chemung group in western New York: New York State Museum Bulletin, no. 251, p. 149-157.


Summary:

Pg. 149-157. Dunkirk black shale extends from Van Buren Point, on Lake Erie, to Holland, [western New York], where it is over 160 feet thick. Two characteristic (and unlike) septarian zones divide it into three members, throughout this distance, the upper of which was included by Luther in his overlying Portland shales. Included in Chemung group. Underlies Gowanda beds and overlies Hanover shale. [Age is Late Devonian.]

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk shale
  • Modifications:
    • Overview
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Goldring, Winifred, 1931, Handbook for paleontology for beginners and amateurs; Part II, The formations: New York State Museum Handbook, no. 10, 488 p.


Summary:

Pg. 369. Included in the Chemung the Dunkirk shale and all overlying beds up to top of Chadakoin of Chadwick. [Age is Late Devonian.]

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk shale
  • Modifications:
    • Revised
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Chadwick, G.H., 1933, Great Catskill delta, and revision of late Devonic succession: Pan-American Geologist, v. 60, nos. 2-5., (No. 2, p. 91-107, Sept. 1933; No. 3, areal refinements, p. 189-204, Oct. 1933; No. 4, revised correlations, p. 275-286, Nov. 1933; and No. 5, p. 348-360, Dec. 1933)


Summary:

Included Fall Creek conglomerate in Dunkirk shale, making it basal bed of the Dunkirk. He repeated this classification in GSA Bull., v. 46, no. 2, p. 323, 1935. In both reports he transferred to his Canadaway group (q.v.) Dunkirk shale and all overlying beds up to top of Northeast shale. [Age is Late Devonian.]

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk shale
    • Dunkirk sandstone
  • Modifications:
    • Overview
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Wilmarth, M.G., 1936, [Selected Geologic Names Committee remarks (ca. 1931-1938) on Paleozoic rocks of the Appalachians], IN Wilmarth, M.G., 1938, Lexicon of geologic names of the United States (including Alaska): U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 896, pts. 1-2, 2396 p.


Summary:

Dunkirk shale (also Dunkirk sandstone). In Steuben and adjacent counties of south-central New York the Dunkirk is a sandstone and is called Dunkirk sandstone. To west the formation is shale and is called Dunkirk shale. Age is Late Devonian.

Source: US geologic names lexicon (USGS Bull. 896, p. 642-643).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk Shale Member*
  • Modifications:
    • Areal extent
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

de Witt, Wallace, Jr., and Roen, J.B., 1985, Correlation and geographic extent of some Middle and Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian black shales in the Appalachian basin, IN Stratigraphic notes, 1984: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1605-A, p. A45-A57.


Summary:

Dunkirk Shale Member of Perrysburg Formation extended from southwestern NY into western PA, eastern OH, and northernmost WV.

Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Reston GNULEX).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk Shale Member*
  • Modifications:
    • Areal extent
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

de Witt, Wallace, Jr., Roen, J.B., and Wallace, L.G., 1993, Stratigraphy of Devonian black shales and associated rocks in the Appalachian basin, IN Roen, J.B., and Kepferle, R.C., eds., Petroleum geology of the Devonian and Mississippian black shale of eastern North America: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1909-B, p. B1-B57.


Summary:

In the type area, Perrysburg consists of the Dunkirk Shale Member (a basal black shale with calcareous nodules), the South Wales Member (a medial gray shale and siltstone sequence), and the Gowanda Shale Member (an upper gray shale and mudrock sequence with calcareous nodules and scattered beds of siltstone and black shale). Most of these rocks are fine to very fine grained. To the south and east, they grade into and interfinger with coarser grained quartzose rocks. The Dunkirk is the youngest extensive black shale in the NY section. In the subsurface, the Dunkirk extends from western NY to north-central WV and the net thickness of radioactive black shale exceeds 100 ft in northwestern PA. Near the PA-OH State line, the Dunkirk grades westward into the lower part of the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. The vertical boundary between the Dunkirk Shale Member of the Perrysburg and the Huron Member of the Ohio is an arbitrary boundary set up for convenience and is not based on lithologic change.

Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Reston GNULEX).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk Shale Tongue
  • Modifications:
    • Revised
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Dennison, J.M., Filer, J.K., and Rossbach, T.J., 1994, Upper Devonian outcrop stratigraphy along the Appalachian basin margin in southeastern West Virginia and southwestern Virginia and implications for hydrocarbon exploration, IN Schultz, A.P., and Rader, E.K., eds., Studies in eastern energy and the environment: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication, no. 132, p. 43-49., See also 1994 AAPG Eastern Section Spec. Vol. (Williamsburg, VA, Sept. 19-21, 1993)


Summary:

Cross section between Norton and Asberrys, VA, in the Clinch Mountain outcrop belt shows more detailed divisions of Chattanooga Shale than previously indicated. Base of Chattanooga marked by Belpre Ash. Ascending, members are Rhinestreet Shale, Angola Shale, Java Shale (including the Center Hill Ash), Dunkirk Shale Tongue of Huron Shale Member and remaining upper part of Huron, Three Lick Bed, Cleveland Shale Member, and Sunbury Shale Member. According to authors, divisions are based on careful outcrop description and outcrop gamma-ray log. Divisions can be traced by borehole gamma-ray logs to their type areas in OH and NY.

Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Reston GNULEX).


Map showing publication footprint
  • Usage in publication:
    • Dunkirk Shale
  • Modifications:
    • Biostratigraphic dating
  • AAPG geologic province:
    • Appalachian basin
Publication:

Over, D.J., 1997, Conodont biostratigraphy of the Java Formation (Upper Devonian) and the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in western New York State, IN Klapper, Gil, and others, eds., Paleozoic sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and biogeography; Studies in honor of J. Granville ("Jess") Johnson: Geological Society of America Special Paper, 321, p. 161-177.


Summary:

Pg. 166. Dunkirk Shale of Canadaway Group. Dark petroliferous shale. Overlies Hanover Shale Member of Java Formation; contact placed at massive black shale of the Dunkirk. Basal part carries conodonts PALMATOLEPIS TRIANGULARIS Sannemann, P. SUBPERLOBATA Branson and Mehl, P. DELICATULA DELICATULA Branson and Mehl, and P. CLARKI Ziegler. Age is Late Devonian (early Famennian; Middle TRIANGULARIS zone).

Source: Publication.


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