USGS Visual Identifier

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GEOLEX database

Geologic Unit: Bird Spring

Publication:
Hewett, D.F., 1931, Geology and ore deposits of the Goodsprings 
   quadrangle, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 
   162, 172 p., (incl. geologic map, scale 1:62,500)
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring formation*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Named
 Great Basin province
 Limestone
 Dolomite
 Shale
 Sandstone
 Conglomerate
 Sand

Summary:
Named for mountain range located on east side of Goodsprings quad, Clark Co, NV. No type locality designated. Study area is within Great Basin province. Central mass of Spring Mountains and large area of Bird Spring Range are underlain by unit. Consists mostly of limestone, shale and sandstone as well as secondary dolomite; chert nodules are present in minor amounts throughout formation, though are most abundant near base; sand is present as distinct beds and as grains uniformly distributed through many beds of limestone; conglomerate occurs at base. Limestone beds range from very thin laminae to massive layers 60 ft thick; color is mostly bluish gray but ranges from black to white with higher beds weathering reddish brown; limestone is fine grained or porcelaneous. Thickest (up to 28 ft thick) and most persistent sandstone is at base. Maximum thickness is 2500 ft. Unconformably overlies Monte Cristo limestone; underlies Supai formation. Geologic map; stratigraphic chart; fossil list; partially measured sections. Probably equivalent to Callville limestone in Muddy Mountains, Clark Co. Pennsylvanian age based on fossils including corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, pelecypods and gastropods.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Denver GNULEX).


Publication:
Longwell, C.R., and Dunbar, C.O., 1936, Problems of 
   Pennsylvanian-Permian boundary in southern Nevada: American 
   Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 20, no. 9, 
   p. 1198-1207. [Available online, with subscription, from AAPG 
   archives:  http://www.aapg.org/datasystems or  http://
   search.datapages.com]
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring formation*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Age modified
 Biostratigraphic dating
 Revised
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
Bird Spring formation in Spring Mountain range, Goodsprings 15' quad, Clark Co, NV, is divided into (ascending): Indian Springs member (700 ft) and 4 unnamed units. Total thickness of the section is 5250 ft. Conformably overlies Monte Cristo limestone and conformably underlies Supai formation. Age is Late Mississippian (Chester) to Early Permian on the basis of fossils identified by G.H. Girty (Late Mississippian) and fusulinids identified by C.O. Dunbar Pennsylvanian to Early Permian (Leonard)) [Early Permian age and Indian Springs member not adopted by USGS at this time].
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
Newell, N.D., 1948, Key Permian section, Confusion Range, western 
   Utah: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 59, no. 10, 
   p. 1053-1058.
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring limestone*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Redescribed
 Areal limits
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
[Bird Spring formation is redescribed as Bird Spring limestone]. Bird Spring limestone is present throughout the northern Confusion Range, UT. About 2600 ft is exposed. Age is Pennsylvanian and Permian on the basis of fossils.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
McAllister, J.F., 1956, Geology of the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, 
   California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map, 
   GQ-95, 1 sheet, scale 1:62,500
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring(?) formation*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Age modified
 Biostratigraphic dating
 Areal limits
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
[Unit is questionably extended into Inyo Co, CA] Bird Spring(?) formation in the Ubehebe Peak 15' quad, Inyo Co, CA is divided into 4 unnamed members (ascending): 1) lower limestone member (northern part of quad) is predominantly limestone of intermediate grays in 1- to 3-foot beds; interstratified with shale, partly carbonaceous; small chert nodules near base; 2) shale member (northern part of quad) is grayish-black to dark greenish-gray shale and argillite, considerable siltstone and sandstone; weathering brownish or reddish-brown; some impure platy limestone; 3) upper limestone member (northern part of quadrangle) is medium-gray limestone; somewhat clastic and thin-bedded in lower part; 4) limestone conglomerate member (southwest corner of quad) is brownish weathering cliff-forming conglomerate, consisting of limestone, siltstone, sandstone, and quartzite with much sandy matrix; capped with calcareous sandstone. Thickness in northern part of quad is somewhat more than 4500 ft (limestone conglomerate member is missing). Age is Pennsylvanian (lower limestone member) and Permian (remaining members) on the basis of fusulinids identified by L.G. Henbest.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
Dunbar, C.O., 1960, Correlation of the Permian formations of 
   North America: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 
   71, no. 12, p. 1763-1806.
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring limestone

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Biostratigraphic dating
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
Upper part of Bird Spring limestone is present in the Spring Mountains, Goodsprings 15' quad, Clark Co, NV. Permian age is based on fusulinids. Correlation chart is included.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
Langenheim, R.L., Jr., Carss, B.W., Kennerly, J.B., McCutcheon, 
   V.A., and Waines, R.H., 1962, Paleozoic section in Arrow 
   Canyon Range, Clark County, Nevada: American Association of 
   Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 46, no. 5, p. 592-609. 
   [Available online, with subscription, from AAPG archives:  
   http://www.aapg.org/datasystems or  http://
   search.datapages.com]
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring Group

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Revised
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
Bird Spring Formation rank raised to Bird Springs Group in Arrow Canyon, Arrow Canyon 7.5' quad, Clark Co, NV. Unit is divided into five subunits (ascending): BSa, BSb, BSc, BSd, BSe. Paraconformably overlies Yellowpine Limestone of the Monte Cristo Group; top of unit truncated by erosion. Section approximately 3500 ft thick. Age is Late Mississippian to Permian on the basis of fossils (corals, brachiopods, fusulinids).
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
Rich, Mark, 1963, Petrographic analysis of Bird Spring Group 
   (Carboniferous-Permian) near Lee Canyon, Clark County, Nevada: 
   American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 
   47, no. 9, p. 1657-1681. [Available online, with subscription, 
   from AAPG archives:  http://www.aapg.org/datasystems or  
   http://search.datapages.com]
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring Group

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Revised
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
Bird Spring Formation rank raised to Bird Spring Group near Lee Canyon, Clark Co, NV. Author recommends that unit be divided into (ascending): Indian Springs Formation [rank raised] and an unnamed upper unit. Disconformably overlies Monte Cristo Formation. Unit is further informally divided into sections of the basis of time-stratigraphic boundaries. A 7200 ft measured section extends from NE/4 sec.34 T17S R57E through secs.27,28,21,20 and 17 T17S R57E in the Charleston Peak 15' quad. Detailed lithology, zonation, and correlation in Rich (1961). Age ranges from Chesterian to Leonardian [Late Mississippian to Early Permian] on the basis of fusulinids. Author disagrees with nomenclature proposed by Langenheim and others (1962) for Bird Spring Group at Arrow Canyon, Clark Co, NV.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
Armstrong, A.K., Smith, C.L., Kennedy, G.L., Sabine, Charles, 
   and Mayerle, R.T., 1987, Mineral resources of the Nopah Range 
   Wilderness Study Area, Inyo County, California, IN Mineral 
   resources of wilderness study areas; Northeastern California 
   Desert Conservation Area, California: U.S. Geological Survey 
   Bulletin, 1709-C, p. C1-C18, (incl. geologic map, scale 
   1:62,500)
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring Formation*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Areal limits
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
Bird Spring Formation is geographically extended into Inyo Co., CA. Age is shown as Pennsylvanian.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
Spencer, J.E., 1990, Geologic map of the southern Avawatz 
   Mountains, northeastern Mojave Desert region, California: 
   U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map, 
   MF-2117, 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring Formation*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Areal limits
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
Bird Spring Formation and Monte Cristo Formation are geographically extended into and mapped as an undivided unit in the southern Avawatz Mountains, San Bernardino Co, CA. Age of Bird Spring Formation is Pennsylvanian and Permian.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
Bohannon, R.G., 1991, Geologic map of the Jacobs Well and southern 
   part of the Elbow Canyon quadrangles, Mohave County, Arizona: 
   U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series 
   Map, I-2167, 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000 [http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/
   Prodesc/proddesc_10162.htm]
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring Formation*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Areal limits
 Plateau sedimentary province
 

Summary:
Extended into northwest Mohave Co, AZ, Plateau sedimentary province. [Extended from Muddy and northern Black Mountains Clark Co, NV]. Upper part probably includes rocks that are mapped elsewhere in region as Pakoon Formation and lower part includes rocks mapped elsewhere as Callville Limestone. Callville and Pakoon are difficult to differentiate on a consistent basis throughout mapped area. Thickness is 360-400 m. Unconformably overlies Monte Cristo Limestone; conformably underlies lower member of Esplanade Sandstone. Pennsylvanian and Early Permian age.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Denver GNULEX).


Publication:
Maldonado, Florian, and Schmidt, D.L., 1991, Geologic map of 
   the southern Sheep Range, Fossil Ridge, and Castle Rock area, 
   Clark County, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous 
   Investigations Series Map, I-2806, 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring Formation*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Areal limits
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
Bird Spring Formation is geographically extended into the Sheep Range, Fossil Ridge, and Castle Rock areas, Clark Co, NV. Age is Early Pennsylvanian to Early Permian.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Menlo GNULEX).


Publication:
Hintze, L.F., and Axen, G.J., 1995, Geologic map of the Scarecrow 
   Peak Quadrangle, Washington County, Utah and Lincoln Co, 
   Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map, 
   GQ-1759, 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000 [http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/
   Prodesc/proddesc_307.htm]
Usage in Publication:
Bird Spring Formation*

Modifications: Geologic Province: Dominant Lithology:
 Areal limits
 Mapped 1:24k
 Great Basin province
 

Summary:
Extended into Washington Co, UT, and Lincoln Co, NV, Great Basin province. Large exposure mapped in central part of quad. Consists of cyclic medium gray limestone, dolomite, and sandstone; limestone commonly contains chert nodules. Lower part is mostly limestone becoming more dolomitic in upper part; upper part may be equivalent to Pakoon Dolomite. Forms repeated slope-ledge staircase weathering pattern. Fossils include brachiopods, corals, bryozoan, and crinoid debris. Base not exposed; apparent thickness is more than 600 m; true thickness may be less because some unmapped faults may repeat parts of unit. Conformably overlies Monte Cristo Limestone; conformably underlies Queantoweap Sandstone with gradational contact. Pennsylvanian and Early Permian age.
Source: GNU records (USGS DDS-6; Denver GNULEX).